More specific parameters for milk include urea MUNnitrogen or freezing point depression. A set of starter calibrations is available for a quick and efficient start. Liquid Sampling Module Bruker offers in combination with the well-known MPA II spectrometer a software assisted analysis for raw milk and liquid milk products. It pumps and homogenizes raw milk samples, but can also bypass the homogenizer for other liquid sample types.
Milk Background Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world.
In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw cow's milk is processed before it is consumed.
During processing the fat content of the milk is adjusted, various vitamins are added, and potentially harmful bacteria are killed.
In addition to being consumed as a beverage, milk is also used to make butter, cream, yogurt, cheese, and a variety of other products. History The use of milk as a beverage probably began with the domestication of animals.
Goats and sheep were domesticated in the area now known as Iran and Afghanistan in about B. The method for making cheese from milk was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the use of milk and milk products spread throughout Europe in the following centuries.
Cattle were first brought to the United States in the s by some of the earliest colonists. Prior to the American Revolution most of the dairy products were consumed on the farm where they were produced.
By aboutpopulation centers such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia had grown sufficiently to become an attractive market for larger-scale dairy operations. To meet the increased demand, farmers began importing breeds of cattle that were better suited for milk production. The first Holstein-Friesens were imported inthe first Ayrshires inand the first Guernseys in With the development of the dairy industry in the United States, a variety of machines for processing milk were also developed.
InGail Borden patented a method for making condensed milk by heating it in a partial vacuum. Not only did his method remove much of the water so the milk could be stored in a smaller volume, but it also protected the milk from germs in the air.
Borden opened a condensed milk plant and cannery in Wassaic, New York, in During the Civil War, his condensed milk was used by Union troops and its popularity spread. InLouis Pasteur of France developed a method of heating wine to kill the microorganisms that cause wine to turn into vinegar.
Later, this method of killing harmful bacteria was adapted to a number of food products and became known as pasteurization. The first milk processing plant in the United States to install pasteurizing equipment was the Sheffield Farms Dairy in Bloomfield, New Jersey, which imported a German-made pasteurizer in Many dairy operators opposed pasteurization as an unnecessary expense, and it wasn't until that Chicago became the first major city to require pasteurized milk.
New York and Philadelphia followed inand by most major cities had enacted laws requiring that all milk be pasteurized. One of the first glass milk bottles was patented in by Dr.
Henry Thatcher, after seeing a milkman making deliveries from an open bucket into which a child's filthy rag doll had accidentally fallen. It was sealed with a waxed paper disc that was pressed into a groove inside the bottle's neck. The milk bottle, and the regular morning arrival of the milkman, remained a part of American life until the s, when waxed paper cartons of milk began appearing in markets.
Inthe annual production of milk in the United States was about billion lb This is equivalent to about The remainder was sold as dry milk, canned milk, and other milk products.
Types of Milk There are many different types of milk. Some depend on the amount of milk fat present in the finished product.
Others depend on the type of processing involved. Still others depend on the type of dairy cow that produced the milk.Process Analysis:How ice cream is made raw ingredients such as the dairy products composed of cream, condensed milk, & butterfat; sugar, flavorings such as egg, vanilla etc; and additives such as guar gum to achieve a smooth and creamy texture.
A focus on the fermentation process and a list of fermented milk products. By Riccardo Meggiato on December 07, We know from history books that the nomadic tribes of the East used to keep milk in bags made from animal intestines.
Almond Milk vs. Cow Milk Life Cycle Assessment analysis.
For the process LCA on cow milk we took the lifecycle stages from the Fluid milk and butter manufacturing and milk production sectors from the EIOLCA. For the almond milk process LCA, most data was collected from the Hilltop Ranch and Braden Farms almond production and. Milk and Dairy Analysis Bruker offers easy, reliable and cost-effective solutions for milk testing and dairy analysis.
Raw milk and dairy products, including yogurt, cheese and milk powder can be controlled with a single analyzer. The Milk Bank continually seeks to provide the highest quality of safe Pasteurized Donor Human Milk (PDHM) to infants in most need. We know that the variability of nutritional content of donor milk can be a concern for the adequate growth of fragile infants.
Milk Processing The Milk Processing section contains general information on operations important in milk processing. A brief discussion of milk handling from the farm to the processing plant is provided as an introduction to this section.