Classroom Activities Introduction From untilthe Chinese imperial eunuch Zheng He led seven ocean expeditions for the Ming emperor that are unmatched in world history. These missions were astonishing as much for their distance as for their size:
Back To Top Circle I: The European circle was the poorest and least developed circle in the 13th century, because there were not many productsfrom Europe that the Muslims, Indians or Chinese wanted to buy.
The Europeans, on the other hand, were hungry for luxuryproducts from Asia. The first important trade link was established between Venice and Genoa in northern Italy and Brugesin Flanders.
The merchants traveled overland and met halfway at fairs in Champagne during the 13th century. There theyexchanged the fine wool cloth made in Flanders for the imported goods from Asia. In the 14th century, the Genoese andCatalans figured out how to navigate through the difficult wind pattern at the Malacca edu of Gibraltar the exit of theMediterranean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and then began sailing from Genoa to Bruges.
From the trade city at Bruges,merchants spread the imported products all over northern Europe. Bruges, Venice, Genoa Products imported: Merchants traded grain, wool, fish, wine, and copper from one area of Europe to another.
Overland packtrains lines of horses, donkeys or wagons loaded with products in 13th century; Atlantic galleys and Malacca edu in the 14th century.
Ships from the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa picked up the products of Asia spices, silk, jewels from Muslim and Jewish merchants at ports on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea or on the Black Sea.
The Venetians and Genoese sold wool cloth, slaves, furs and silver made or collected in Europe to Muslim or Jewish merchants. The Venetians and Genoese then sold Malacca edu Asian products to wealthy people in Europe. During the Crusades, Latin Christian crusaders conquered Mediterranean ports which were at the end of the Silk Road trade routes, such as Acre and Tyre.
The crusaders gave the Venetians and Genoese, their fellow Latin Christians, trading rights at those ports. Afterwhen Baybars of the Mamluk Sultanate Egypt defeated the last of the crusaders, the Venetians moved their businesses to trade at Alexandria and Cairo, and the Genoese moved their businesses to Caffa on the north shore of the Black Sea.
All of these ports were at the end of land trade routes from the east. Mediterranean galleys wide, shallow ships rowed by slaves ; cogs sailing ships with two or three decks, and four to six lateen sails Important States: This route, part of which is the Silk Road, had been traveled for more than a thousand years before the medieval period.
The land of Central Asia is mostly desert, steppe or mountains, and few people lived along the route. Finding water was a major problem, and bandits often robbed caravans. For these reasons, the land route was more dangerous and expensive than the sea routes between the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans and had become much less popular than Circles IV the Persian Gulf circle and V the Red Sea circle.
When the Mongols conquered their huge empire, the new Mongol rulers got rid of dangerous bandits, protected caravans, and established peace. Merchants had to pay the Mongols tribute like a taxbut this tribute was less than others charged.
The Mongols also maintained a road network, with caravanserais businesses which provided shelter, food and water for caravan merchants and their animals at each stopping point. Mongol rule made the overland route to the east more cost-effective. Marco Polo and his relatives traveled this route on their journey to China, and John of Montecorvino, an Italian Franciscan missionary, wrote that it took less than one year to travel between the Mediterranean and China by this route.
When the Mongol empire broke up in the 14th century, bandits again threatened merchants on the overland route, and merchants switched back to the safer sea routes. Groups of merchants traveled together in caravans of camels across desert areaspackhorses or mules across mountains and wagons.
Persian Gulf Circle Description: This circle was one of three trade routes that connected the Mediterranean Sea area with the Indian Ocean and east Asia. The trade route began at the Syrian ports on the eastern coast also called the Levant of the Mediterranean Sea. Beforethese ports were controlled by Venice, because they were located in the Crusader kingdoms.
Traveling inland from the port, merchants crossed the desert to the Tigris River and then took ship down the river to Baghdad. John of Montecorvino, an Italian Franciscan missionary, wrote that it took 2 years to travel from the Mediterranean to China by this route. After the Mongols destroyed Baghdad in and the Egyptian Mamluks took over the Crusader kingdoms inthis route became less safe and less popular than the Red Sea Circuit.
The Mamluks no longer allowed Christian merchants to travel across Muslim lands. Over land, merchants traveled together in caravans of camels, horses and mules.
On the seas and rivers, shippers used dhows small trading ships with lateen sails Important States: Red Sea Circle Description: This circuit was one of the three middle routes between the Mediterranean and East Asia.
After the fall of Baghdad in and the Crusader kingdoms inMamluk Egypt became the most powerful state in the western Muslim world. The Mamluks were a dynasty of slave-soldiers. Non-Muslims from Central Asia were sold into slavery as young boys, carried to Cairo on Genoese ships, and trained as soldiers by older Mamluk slave-soldiers.Melaka / Malacca is about km away from the Malaysia Airport, either KLIA or KLIA2.
The Transnasional bus provides regular shuttle routes between Melaka and KLIA2 and KLIA airports. To board the Transnasional bus to Melaka, you can go to KLIA2's Transportation Hub if .
Revitalizing Malacca Portuguese Creole Stefanie Pillai, Adriana Phillip, and Wen-Yi Soh Abstract This chapter discusses a revitalization project of the heritage language of. With the concept of ‘One Institute, One Specialisation’, UniKL’s education model is designed to produce graduates who are globally competent, having been nurtured to live up to .
Jul 07, · The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka ; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Conventional historical thesis marks c.
as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara who was also known as Iskandar Shah. Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. Established on 1st December as the 1st Technical Public University in Malaysia.
Located in the UNESCO world heritage city of Melaka, Set within acres of lush verdant landscape boasting state-of-the art facilities in all its seven faculties. Taking a look at the issue of maritime piracy in and around the Strait of Malacca.