Carroll served in the Maryland Senate. Wythe 's first exposure to politics was as a member of Virginia's House of Burgesses. Read 's entry into the political arena was as a commissioner of the town of Charlestown, Maryland. Wilson 's time as a member of the Continental Congress in was his introduction to colonial politics.
Created by HistoricFauxFoodsthese faux versions, above, show what Victorian funeral biscuits and their wrappings and seals looked like. Commemorative eating and drinking customs at funerals go back so far in time that Paleolithic humans are believed to have dined on the corpse itself before they buried it.
Those ancestors -- we now know them as "cave men" -- were the first humans to perceive some higher meaning in death and to ceremonially entomb their dead. It's likely that eating a bit of a deceased loved one was an effort to both honor and incorporate their essence into one's own.
Anthropologists believe this grisly habit evolved into the somewhat more Photo: Rama Reconstruction of a prehistoric grave excavated in France.
Paleolithic humans were the first to ceremoniously bury their dead. Emerging from the Middle Ages in old Germany, for instance, was the funeral tradition of eating "corpse cakes" that symbolically mirrored the act of eating the deceased.
After the body had been washed and laid in its coffin, the woman First communion toast the house prepared leavened dough and placed it to rise on the linen-covered chest First communion toast the corpse.
It was believed the dough "absorbed" some of the deceased's personal qualities that were, in turn, passed on to mourners who ate the corpse cakes. Similar traditions were found in Hungary and other parts of central Europe where various sorts of food and drink were placed close to the corpse for an hour to "absorb" the virtues of the dead individual before being consumed.
In a tobacco-based version of this concept, in some areas of Ireland, a bowl of snuff was placed on the chest of the dead person or the lid of the coffin, and each of mourners was expected to take a pinch. Perhaps the most colorful commemorative funeral food ritual of this old genre was that of the "sin-eater" in Great Britain and Ireland during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The local sin-eater was a reviled person of the lowest social status -- not unlike the untouchables of Sin-eaters ate salt and bread laid out on the corpse's chest. India or burakumin of Japan -- who was paid a pittance to attend the wake and eat bread and salt from a plate or bowl resting on the chest of the deceased.
In doing so, he was believed to be consuming and transferring the sins of the dead to himself, allowing the departed soul to enter heaven rather than be forced to wander the earth to atone for wicked deeds.
Period accounts indicate that once the sin-eater finished the plate, he was often kicked, punched and otherwise abused by the crowd as he scrambled to escape the gathering.
After the sin-eater departed, family members stood on one side of the coffin and handed chunks of "arvel" or "arvil" cake across the corpse to mourners.
The practice traces back to the Nordic tradition of hoisting bowls of "heir ale" at funerals to toast the oldest male's assumption of the family property and power. The English "arvel" or ale cakes were often washed down with hearty draughts of spiced ale or port before the pallbearers carried the body to the burial site.
Affluent individuals of the era sometimes used "mazer bowls" in sin-eater rituals. These are a type of drinking vessel Wealthy individuals sometimes used mazer bowls for sin-eating rituals.
Made of turned maple wood, often eight inches or more across, the bowls usually had bands of metal around their rims and were often decorated with rich tooling on the wood and metal.
People fixated on the details of their future funeral would sometimes commission special mazer bowls from which the sin-eater would consume bread, salt and cheese.
After the burial, the bowls became a family heirloom and memorial. By the late 18th century, commemorative funerary food traditions were becoming more refined in European and U.
These were known as "funeral biscuits" and came to be called "funeral cookies" by the late 19th century in the U. Although they varied widely in size, shape and consistency, in spirit they were all the same. The British upper crust tended to favor the use of the sponge cake-like Lady Finger biscuits sometimes as wide and long as a modern hot dog roll.
These were wrapped in plain paper held together with a daub of black sealing wax. In the Yorkshire and Lincolshire sections of England, they were called "burying biscuits.
Larger one local described his earlier experience at a Yorkshire "funeral of the richer sort": The paper in which these biscuits were sealed was printed on one side with a coffin, cross-bones, skulls, hacks, spades, hour-glass, etc Resembling modern-day cookies in size and shape, these were often formed in hand-carved wooden stamping molds that embossed a cross, heart, death's head or cherub on their tops.
In her study of Colonial-era funeral practices, historian Jacqueline Thursby describes Pennsylvania customs in Montgomery County near Philadelphia: The young woman held a tray of spirits and the young man a cup. As mourners passed by, they received a [biscuit] from the maiden and a sip of spirits from the young man.
A secular communion of sorts, these ritual behaviors transcended countries of origin and melded a diverse young nation with the common cords of death, mourning and tradition. It some places, it was common to wrap funeral biscuits in printed death notices. Larger The funeral biscuit served as part of a code representing understood messages of mourning, honor and remembrance.The maid of honor's toast is, well, a girl thing.
And while male musings often move us, we think the maid of honor will find enormous inspiration in the words of her sagacious, soul-searching sisters.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great timberdesignmag.com were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America..
Historian Richard B. Morris in identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and.
First Holy Communion is, in the Roman Catholic tradition, a time for families to gather and celebrate the commitment of a child to his or her faith. Depending on family traditions and style, it may be appropriate (and expected) for the godparents to raise a toast as a way of commending the new.
May 06, · Tommorrow is my Godson's First Holy Communion and I would like to give a toast at the party after. The problem is, I'm horrible at figuring out what to say. While I don't want to hijack the celebration and turn the focus away from my Godson, I would like to make my toast a little more Christ.
Bread, beer & yeast The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste.