In the current investigation, we trained 2 individuals to emit different communication responses to request a the rein- forcer for destructive behavior in a given situation e. Next, we taught the participants to request each reinforcer in the presence of a different discriminative stimulus S D we evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement of communication DRC using the functional and alternative reinforcers and correlated S D s, with and without extinction of destructive behavior. During all applications, DRC in combination with S D naled available reinforcers rapidly reduced destructive behavior to low levels regardless of whether the functional reinforcer or an alternative reinforcer was available or whether reinforcement for destructive behavior was discontinued i. With FCT, the individual is taught a communicative response that produces ac- cess to the reinforcer responsible for main- tenance of the problem behavior.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Tiger and Hanley described a multiple-schedule procedure to reduce ill-timed requests, which involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals that were correlated with periods in which teacher attention was either available or unavailable.
The current study extended the application of multiple schedules by evaluating the effectiveness of the procedure when implemented by private-school teachers in 3 elementary classrooms.
Following the introduction of the multiple schedules, student approaches toward their teacher were maintained during desirable periods but were minimized during undesirable periods.
Well-intentioned teachers who provide intermittent reinforcement of these ill-timed requests for attention may only further complicate the situation. The procedure used by Tiger and Hanley involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals e. When combined with descriptive rules, these schedule-correlated stimuli rapidly resulted in relatively high rates of social approaches when attention was available and low rates when attention was not available.
Multiple-schedule procedures may be particularly useful in elementary school classrooms during periods in which academic lessons are assigned and individualized teacher assistance is only intermittently available.
Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a classwide application of the multiple-schedule procedure described by Tiger and Hanley when implemented by teachers during instructional periods in three elementary classrooms.
Method Participants and Setting The study was conducted in three classrooms in a private elementary school. Each classroom was staffed by two teachers who alternated shifts, such that one teacher was present in the classroom at any given time.
The teachers ranged in age from 19 to 22 years and had between 6 months and 2 years of teaching experience. The number of children enrolled in Classrooms A, B, and C were 12, 12, and 10, respectively, and a broad range of skill levels kindergarten through sixth grade and ages 5 through 13 years were represented in each of the three classrooms.
The classrooms in this school were unique in that every student was enrolled in a self-paced, individualized curriculum rather than following a set schedule of academics. The teacher in each classroom served several simultaneous functions, including providing assistance to students as requested; promoting engagement with assignments; arranging access to preferred activities; and collecting and recording data with respect to classroom friendship, citizenship, and academic performance.
Because the curriculum was self-paced, the students completed their assignments at different rates. Thus, at any given moment, it was common for some students to be engaged in independent academic assignments, others to be playing, and one to be receiving a private tutorial.
Data were collected on the overall number of social approaches made in each classroom rather than the number emitted by individual students.
Procedure Baseline Teachers conducted all typical routines during baseline conditions, which involved responding to student social approaches and providing academic assistance as needed. During these routines, teachers randomly alternated wearing either a green or a red lei across sessions i.
There were no differential consequences associated with each lei. This phase was arranged to ensure that ecologically valid baselines were established from which the effects of correlating the different-colored leis with the availability and unavailability of teacher attention could be evaluated i.
Multiple Schedule Sessions during this condition were similar to those in baseline except that the green and red leis were differentially associated with the availability of teacher attention. Immediately prior to each session, the experimenter briefly described the contingency for the teacher to implement in the impending session.
To facilitate control by the contingencies associated with both the green and red leis, the teacher described the contingencies associated with the relevant lei prior to each session i. The multiple-schedule procedure was sequentially introduced across classrooms in a concurrent multiple baseline design.
During reinforcement sessions, the smaller of the two numbers was divided by the larger number components with zero social approaches and zero attention deliveries were scored as accurate.Latency measures showed that the antecedent stimulus correlated with punishment served as the discriminative stimulus for the suppression of stereotypy.
These results are important insofar as they show that discriminative control by an antecedent stimulus develops with punishment, and because it sometimes may be desirable to establish . Keywords: fading, stimulus control transfer, DRA, functional communication training, self-injury, screaming, autism Effective function-based interventions for problem behavior begin with a functional analysis to identify reinforcers that maintain the behavior .
An Introduction to the Establishing Discriminative Control of Responding Using Functional and Alternative Reinforcers During Functional Communication Training.
words. 2 pages. An Introduction to the Issue of Media Monopoly in USA.
2, words. Brown, K. E., & Mirenda, P. (). Contingency mapping: Use of a novel visual support strategy as an adjunct to functional equivalence training.
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, Buckley, S. D., & Newchok, D. K. (). Differential impact of response effort within a response chain on use of mands in a student with autism.
In Phase I, the operant function of the target behavior was identified using an analogue functional analysis (FA) based on the procedures described by Iwata et al. (/). Participants were exposed to four or five conditions.
For Alex, attention, play, tangible and demand and for Josh, attention, play, alone, tangible and demand conditions. Functional communication training (FCT) is a popular treatment for problem behaviors, but its effectiveness may be compromised when the client emits the target communication response and reinforcement is either delayed or denied.