Miller and Co, Oxford University Press, Princeton, Vienna, November Wolfgang Danspeckgruber ed. Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination,
Daniel Boone escorting settlers through the Cumberland Gap In the colonial era, beforethe west was of high priority for settlers and politicians.
The American frontier began when JamestownVirginia was settled by the English in In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until aboutthe frontier was essentially any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast.
Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence Riverbuilding communities that remained stable for long stretches; they did not simply jump west the way the British did. Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they seldom settled down.
French settlement was limited to a few very small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois  as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans. Likewise, the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York, but they did not push westward. These areas remained primarily in subsistence agriculture, and as a result by the s these societies were highly egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized.
The wealthy speculator, if one was involved, usually remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident. The class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were also poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day make them prosperous.
Few artisans settled on the frontier except for those who practiced a trade to supplement their primary occupation of farming. There might be a storekeeper, a minister, and perhaps a doctor; and there were a number of landless laborers.
All the rest were farmers. North Carolina was representative. However frontier areas of that had good river connections were increasingly transformed into plantation agriculture.
Rich men came in, bought up the good land, and worked it with slaves. The area was no longer "frontier". It had a stratified society comprising a powerful upper-class white landowning gentry, a small middle-class, a fairly large group of landless or tenant white farmers, and a growing slave population at the bottom of the social pyramid.
Unlike the North, where small towns and even cities were common, the South was overwhelmingly rural. Land ownership brought a degree of independence as well as a vote for local and provincial offices.
The typical New England settlements were quite compact and small—under a square mile. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of political issues, namely who would rule.
The series of large wars spilling over from European wars ended in a complete victory for the British in the worldwide Seven Years' War. In the peace treaty ofFrance lost practically everything, as the lands west of the Mississippi river, in addition to Florida and New Orleans, went to Spain.
Otherwise lands east of the Mississippi River and what is now Canada went to Britain. Steady migration to frontier lands[ edit ] Regardless of wars Americans were moving across the Appalachians into western Pennsylvania, what is now West Virginia, and areas of the Ohio CountryKentucky and Tennessee.
In the southern settlements via the Cumberland Gaptheir most famous leader was Daniel Boone Young George Washington promoted settlements in West Virginia on lands awarded to him and his soldiers by the Royal government in payment for their wartime service in Virginia's militia.
West of the mountains, settlements were curtailed briefly by a decree by the Royal Proclamation of However the Treaty of Fort Stanwix re-opened most of the western lands for frontiersmen to settle. Pioneers housed themselves in a rough lean-to or at most a one-room log cabin.A literary analysis of robb whites novels robb whites History.
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